Friday, December 24, 2010

Merry X'mas 2010

Wish you all a blessed Merry Christmas!

Christmas is not about Santa Claus
Christmas is not about exchanging gift
Christmas is not about  snowing Christmas tree

For God so loved the world
Christ has come as a baby child in Bethlehem
His name is Jesus
He came to save us
Bringing us a gift of hope
To fill our hearts with love
This is God's eternal plan
And Christmas is the reason we celebrate.

Wednesday, December 22, 2010

Application of Centre of Gravity

Wednesday December 22, 2010 , The Star

Experts: High-decked bus unsuitable for highlands

PETALING JAYA: The bus involved in the horrific accident along the Cameron Highlands-Simpang Pulai road which killed 27 people was to be used only for city tours, not for long-distance travels, especially those involving hilly terrain, experts say. They said high-decked buses were unsuitable for travelling uphill as the centre of gravity was higher, making such vehicles very unstable. The bus can become unstable when going uphill or when travelling at a higher speed. This is especially when drivers negotiate sharp bends,” he said.

He said all the passengers of the ill-fated bus were seated in the upper deck, adding: “This can result in instability and the centre of gravity is out.” The lower deck, he said, was designed as a conference room and was filled with the passengers’ luggage.Asked if such a vehicle was allowed to travel uphill, Dr Wong said: “A high-decked bus is more stable if its centre of gravity is lower.”
This is what you have learn from Form 2 Science lesson:
  • the lower the centre of gravity, the higher the stability of the object.
  • the wider the base area, the higher the stability of the object.

So, never ever board the double decker bus to Genting highlands or Cameron highlands!
Science knowledges really can save lives.

Friday, December 17, 2010

Invitation to Christmas Drama

If you are free on 24 & 25 Dec 2010, spend your valuable time at Dewan Sri Pinang to witness yourself one of the best Christmas drama in town. See you there.

Thursday, December 16, 2010

PMR Result on 23 Dec 2010

The 2010 PMR results will be released on Dec 23. The candidates can get their re-sults from their schools from 10am, said a statement from the Education Ministry. Private candidates will get their results through the mail, the statement added. A total of 479,675 candidates sat for the examination, 446,896 of them from government schools. — Bernama

Dear Form 3 students,
I hope that all of you can score well in your PMR. Remember to inform me about your result. God Bless You.

Monday, November 29, 2010

Singapore Government Hungers For Talents

I never expected that Singapore government acted so swift to lure our Malaysian talents. If you don't believe with your own eyes, kindly read the news below:

Singapore government had offered them a place in their university in a straight manner without hesitation and bureaucracy. In reality, they do not wait the outstanding students to finish their SPM to give scholarships. Their effective tool 'Asian Scholarship' has make a headway to lower secondary school by offering Form 2 outstanding students a chance to study in republic. Everything is sponsored by Singapore government. In contrast, our nation still plaguing with scholarship issue every year.

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Why Teacher Needs 'CUTI-CUTI SEKOLAH'

Do you realize that how pathetic teacher is when handling students with learning attitude problems? That is why we, teacher need to take vacation to recuperate from mental torture.
Here are some examples of answer written by student:

Ha.....Ha....How come got this type of student? Don't worry! We as a teacher will do the best to help this type of student regardless of race, religion and nationality. Long Live Teacher!

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

History Subject 'must pass' from 2013 onwards

Wow...! If you want to get SPM certificate, then you must pass Bahasa Melayu and Sejarah by 2013. Fortunately, I born earlier than you all. Otherwise, I may have to re-sit my Sejarah papers in order for me to get SPM certificate. This news certainly not welcomed by students and parents. Perhaps, the most beneficial group is Sejarah's tuition teachers. More and more students will engage in Sejarah tuition to get examination tips. Let's read others opinion on this issue.

Datin Noor Azimah Abdul Rahim, chairman of The Parent Action Group of Education, PAGE
  • “[Page] is of the view that this is yet another politically-motivated decision to appease and please Umno delegates at its general assembly, without any thought given to recent policy decisions that have been made by him on education thus far,” Noor Azimah said in a statement.
  • She argued that Muhyiddin should have instead declared English a must-pass subject, as this would have “perfectly complemented” the MBMMBI (To Uphold Bahasa Malaysia, To Strengthen the English Language) policy set to come into effect next year.
  • Noor Azimah said the decision to make passing History compulsory also did not gel with the government’s determination to move away from rote learning and overemphasis on exams, which some critics have blamed for Malaysia’s lack of innovation.
  • “By now making history a must-pass subject, he is not only re-burdening the students but instead further magnifying ... the stress of not obtaining the SPM certificate because the student did not pass History, as opposed to Bahasa Malaysia which is justifiable!”
  • She warned that unless History was enhanced by incorporating world history and given “serious housekeeping”, the move to make it a must-pass subject was unlikely to pay real dividends.
Loh Seng Kok of MCA
  • urged the Education Ministry to review and mend what it called an “imbalanced” account of the nation’s history in existing textbooks favouring one race and religious civilisation before making the subject a “must pass” in school from 2013.
  • “MCA has received feedback (or complaints) from parents that the History textbook syllabus tends to predominantly favour a particular race and religious civilisation, while using derogatory terms of ‘pendatang asing’ [foreign immigrants] on other races,”
  • He stressed that the history taught in schools must be objective, rational and impartial to reflect the contributions of the different races and religious groups in the making of multicultural Malaysia.
  • The MCA man said the new syllabi created should be free from influence of any one political group and urged History authors not to “introduce new terms which hint of racial supremacy or inaccurately suggest that vernacular schools impede national unity”.
Tony Pua of DAP
  •  claimed that the government’s sudden interest was likely to be selective — emphasising Malay rights provisions and conveniently neglecting others.
  • Pua said that the onus was on Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin to form an independent advisory and review body to conduct a complete “overhaul” of the subject before it is made compulsory.
  • “We fear that this new measure is a blatant attempt to indoctrinate our students with a narrow and biased interpretation of our Federal Constitution and our country’s founding history.
  • “We call upon the DPM Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin to first convene a independent advisory and review body comprising of representatives from the Bar Council, eminent retired judges as well as renowned academics on the history of Malaya,”
My OpinionDo not politicise SEJARAH. Make this wonderful subject as a tool to unite all Malaysians.

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Malaysian BOLEH.....Top in Cambridge University

Tuesday October 19, 2010, The Star
Malaysian is top law student at Cambridge University

PETALING JAYA: A 23-year-old Malaysian has emerged as the top student in his final-year law examinations at Cambridge University. Tan Zhongshan obtained a first-class honours in the Bachelor of Arts (Law) in June this year at Queens’ College, which is part of the university, one of England’s oldest and most prestigious.

Queens’ College dean Dr Martin Dixon said Tan definitely stood out among the students there. “He is probably the best Malaysian student I have seen in the last 10 years,” said Dr Dixon, who taught Tan on Land and Equity for two years. “He is the most able, dedicated and one of the most likeable students I have taught in more than 20 years at Cambridge.” “He works really hard, has great insight and intuition. He is a problem-solver, listens well and learns,” he said.

Tan was modest about his achievements. “It was a pleasant surprise as it is hard to predict the end results,” said the Ipoh-born, who has been in Singapore since August. On his secret to success, he attributed it to “consistent work and a detailed understanding of the subjects”.

The classical guitar player is not done yet. He will pursue his Bar exams, expected to be completed by end of 2011, in Singapore. “I will also join the Singapore Legal Service in January,” said Tan, who was awarded an Asean scholarship by Singapore’s Ministry of Education after completing his A-Levels at the Temasek Junior College there.

No doubt our Malaysian students were talented and gifted. To my disappointment, our multi-talented students have chosen other countries to serve for. Why our government is so passive to lure our best brain to work here? Shouldn't they be offered a scholarship at the first place to retain them? Singapore acted fast with their attractive Asean scholarship to import the best brain and the result is Singapore progressing very well in every aspects. The next strategy adopted by Singapore government is to offer Tan Zhongshan citizenship and providing a platform for him to showcase his expertise. Our country not only exporting commodities products but we are also top exporter of human talent. Malaysia Boleh.........

What is the use of Talent Corporation with the purpose of luring Malaysian's talent back when we are not able to retain our available talent?

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Orang Kurang Upaya without arm can play piano.....sure or not....!

Armless pianist plays with toes to win ‘China’s Got Talent’
October 11, 2010, The Malaysian Insider News

BEIJING, Oct 11 — An armless pianist who plays with his toes has won the first series of China’s version of the internationally popular television talent show, “China’s Got Talent.” Liu Wei, 23, who lost both his arms aged 10 when he was electrocuted during a game of hide-and-seek, defeated 7-year-old standup comedian Zhang Fengxi at the final on Sunday at the Shanghai Stadium, the Shanghai Daily reported.

The pianist, from Beijing, who taught himself to play the piano at age 18, impressed the audience with his performance of “You’re Beautiful,” singing and using his feet to play the piano. He also reported won over the judges by commenting: “At least I have a pair of perfect legs.” At the award ceremony, Liu was invited by Taiwan singer Jolin Tsai to be a guest performer on her world tour which gives him the chance to perform in Las Vegas for three months.

Liu Wei did not give up his life despite of losing his two arms. He accepted the reality and moved on. He used his only perfect legs to start over again and learn how to overcome all obstacles that hinder him from attaining success. His struggles and adversities make him firm, strong and steadfast. Let us emulate Liu Wei's attitude especially for those who are physically perfect. Nothing is impossible.

Monday, October 11, 2010

Chemistry Form Four: Chapter 9 - Contact Process

A brief summary of the Contact Process:

  • Solid sulfur, S(s), is burned in air to form sulfur dioxide gas.
  • The gases are mixed with more air then cleaned by electrostatic precipitation to remove any particulate matter.
  • The mixture of sulfur dioxide and air is heated to 450 degree Celcius and subjected to a pressure of 101.3 - 202.6 kPa (1 -2 atmospheres) in the presence of a vanadium catalyst (vanadium (V) oxide) to produce sulfur trioxide, with a yield of 98%.
  • Any unreacted gases from the above reaction are recycled back into the above reaction.
  • Sulfur trioxide is dissolved in 98% (18M) sulfuric acid to produce disulfuric acid or pyrosulfuric acid, also known as fuming sulfuric acid or oleum.
  • Water is then added to the oleum to produce 98% of sulphuric acid.
Attention:  If the sulphur trioxide is added directly to water an acid mist forms which is difficult to contain because the reaction to form sulphuric acid solution is very exothermic!

Click below video for further explanation of Contact Process.

Sunday, October 10, 2010

PMR replaced with school-based asessment by 2016

Sunday October 10, 2010, The Star
No more PMR exam

PETALING JAYA: The national education system is set to undergo a major change in 2016 when the Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) public examination for Form Three students is replaced with school-based assessment. The change will also see the syllabus for the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) examination for Year Six pupils improved, Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said yesterday.
Muhyiddin, who is also Education Minister, said his announcement comes after two roundtable sessions.

Other developments:
> The Malaysian Examination Syndicate will be roped in to run the school-based PMR assessment;
> Parents have voiced fears that such an assessment will be taken less seriously by students;
> Teachers want extra help to run the school-based PMR assessment

Thursday, October 7, 2010

New Schooling Date for 2011

Thursday October 7, 2010, The Star

School term to start on Jan 3 next year

PETALING JAYA: Students will go back to school on Jan 3 in all states except for those in Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu, where classes start a day earlier (see chart). The Education Ministry website on the school calendar for 2011 stated that there will be 210 school days next year. Students will have 78 days of holiday next year, which is the same as this year.

Education director-general Tan Sri Alimuddin Mohd Dom said schools can apply for four days of cuti peristiwa (occasional holiday), which need not be replaced. School heads explained that schools can also apply for cuti ganti (replacement holiday), which is subject to approval by the respective state Education Depart­ments. The year-end break will start on Nov 19 next year for all schools, except for those in Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu which start a day earlier

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

PMR on already....!

Wish all Form 3 students able to score A in all subjects. Enjoy your examination and study hard & smart.

Do not sleep
Do not nervous
Do not get sick
Do not make mistake while exam.

God Bless You.

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

New Date for SPM and STPM.....23 Nov 2010

Take note, there is a change in SPM and STPM timetable. SPM will start on 23 Nov, not 22 Nov.

Tuesday September 28, 2010
SPM, STPM date confusion

PETALING JAYA: There appears to be confusion as to when schools were informed about the changes to the start of the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) and Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM) examinations.
Both were scheduled to start on Nov 22, but due to the Sultan of Johor’s birthday celebration which falls on that day, they will now start a day later on Nov 23. Malaysian Examinations Syndicate director Datuk Dr Salbiah Ismail said the final SPM timetable was sent to all state education departments in August for the information to be disseminated to district education offices and schools.

The SPM examination will start on Nov 23 and end on Dec 20,” she said in response to complaints from parents that there was misleading information about the SPM examination timetable.

In March, it was reported that Sultan of Johor Sultan Ibrahim Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar decreed that the public holiday for his birthday celebration be changed from April 8 to Nov 22.

A Selangor education department official said it issued a circular to the district education offices informing them of the changes to the dates of the examinations yesterday.

“Schools under Selangor will be receiving the notices today,” he said.Several school heads in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor claim they had not been informed of the changes.

“Our school has not received any ‘black and white’ about the change of dates,” said a principal. Another said he would need to check with the district education office on the matter.
Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) public relations officer Khawari Idris said it issued a circular dated June 30 informing all state education departments on the change in the start of the STPM.“The STPM examination was originally scheduled from Nov 22 to Dec 14 but due to the change of the holiday for the Sultan of Johor’s birthday, we rescheduled the STPM examination from Nov 23 to Dec 16,” he said.

Khawari was responding to a letter to the editor published in StarEducation from an Upper Six student who had complained that the information on the MEC website for the STPM timetable was misleading as it had stated the last day for the examination was Dec 14.

The student said she had checked the MEC website before booking their international flights for Dec 15 and subsequently had to pay a penalty for postponing her flight after she was informed that the last paper scheduled for the STPM was Dec 16.The MEC apologised for the delay in updating the STPM timetable on its website, Khawari said.

Monday, September 27, 2010

Revamp in Vocational Education System

Vocational education system to be revamped: DPM
27/09/2010  Monday, New Straits Times

MUAR: The national vocational education system will be revamped to enable students to take up vocational education earlier after the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR), Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said.

He said the move would be in line with the objective of the 10th Malaysia Plan (10MP) to ensure 20 per cent of students took up vocational studies, from 10 per cent currently.

"This is being looked into by the ministry because it will mean a longer period for the students to be in the field. Hence, they will become more skillful," he said after opening an education excellence programme in Pagoh today.

Muhyiddin, who is also the Education Minister, said the revamp was expected to give a huge leap in the country's vocational education because it contained element of improvement such as in terms of the scope and education syllabus, infrastructure facilities, industrial needs, teaching staff and the involvement of the private sector. He was commenting on a suggestion by readers of the Prime Minister's 1Malaysia blog, which among others, called on the government to expand the potential of Malaysians to become skilled workers.

Muhyiddin said that currently, vocational studies were only taken up by students after their Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) and that the number was still small compared with those in other countries. This was despite the country in need of at least 3.3 million workers in 10 years to meet the country's industrial needs according to the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), he said.

Muhyiddin said that the people should be able to get a clearer picture of the direction of the country's vocational education by next year.

"We do not want parents to regard vocational field as a second option. This has to be rectified," he added.
He said that in many developed countries, the number of vocational students was high, adding that in Indonesia, 40 per cent of its students were in vocational fields while in Thailand, the percentage was 60. - Bernama

Namewee......I am Who I am

Aku Tetap Aku
I am Who I am

After I listening to his latest song, I found out that there was a deep reflection in his life. We grow up and learn to become a better person by reflecting our mistake in our life. Nobody is perfect include teacher. Let us learn how to  forgive and respect each other.

我有我自己的夢 自己會走
Aku akan berusaha mencapai impian ku sendiri
I have my own dream I will keep going

walaupun sunyi
Even it’s a lonely path

請原諒我的衝動 我會好好過
Maafkan impuls aku, aku akan hidup dengan baik-baik
Please forgive me for being impulsive, I will be fine

(percayalah, aku tetap aku)
Believe me I am still who I am

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Chemistry Form Four: Chapter 8 - Application of Precipitation of Salt

Precipitation reaction occur all around us. For example, sometimes the pipes in our homes get clogged because precipitates of magnesium and calcium oxides have deposited themselves within the pipes. This can happen with "hard" water.

Another example is a kidney stone. A kidney stone is nothing more than a precipitate - often of calcium ions (from cheese) and oxalates. It is often suggested that a good way to avoid kidney stones is to drink a lot of water. This helps because the solubility of the precipitate increases with the amount of water - thus avoiding the formation of the kidney stone to begin with.
Various size of kidney stone

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Nicol David a truly Malaysian success

Nicol wins World Open
September 23, 2010 ,The Malaysian Insider News

CAIRO, Sept 23 — Datuk Nicol David captured her 5th World Open squash title yesterday, in dominant fashion, securing her place in the pantheon of great squash players and edging her closer to be being the greatest female squash player ever. Nicol, 27, was always in control in the final against Egyptian Omneya Abdel Kawy winning in straight games 11-5, 11-8 11-6.

My focus was strong throughout the tournament, ” she said after the match to“I really wanted this. I didn’t want to let it slip.”“It’s amazing that I can do something that Sarah [Fitz-Gerald] has done, because she’s such a great player.”Australian Fitz-Gerald’s five titles are now matched by Nicol.
What a good example Nicol David has shown to us? She has make us proud as Anak Malaysia. As a sportswoman, she has performed extremely well and very consistent in games that she participated. She will go down in history to be the greatest female squash player ever had. A legend is born.

Despite of all winnings and world titles she had at the moment, she was humble of her achievements. She was also good in study. If I am not mistaken, she was the former student of SMK Convent Green Lane, Penang. Despite of  the pressure of international squash, Nicol has never neglected her studies and has indeed achieved excellent results by scoring 7As in her SPM examinations in 2000. She is really a good model for us especially the youths to emulate. I hope that the school authorities could invite her to give motivational talk to inspire the students. Nicol, I am proud of you.

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Beyond my description...!

MPV means multi-purpose vehicle which can accommodate 8 passengers such as Toyata Innova. Smaller MPV car such as Perodua Alza and Nissan Grand Livina only can accommodate 6 to 7 passengers. But, there is one vehicle in China that really amazed me. When someone being pushed to the limit of poverty, somehow our brain starts to work and think critically how to solve immediate problems. Something impossible will become possible.

If we are determine to do something, there is always a way out. I couldn't believe if  I don't see it myself that this man can carry so many passengers with his motorbike and how confidently he rode on the road. This new MPV clearly the winner of all MPV cars in terms of number of passenger can be carried.
Count yourself, how many passengers on board? are correct. It is 9. Oh my God, a motorbike with 1 rider and 8 pillion passengers.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Chemistry Form Four: Chapter 8 - Preparation of Insoluble Salt

Insoluble salt can be prepared by using double decomposition reaction or precipitation reaction. A precipitate is a solid that forms out of solution. For an insoluble salt such as SILVER CHLORIDE, you need to find a soluble SILVER compound and a soluble CHLORIDE compound.
  • A good choice for the soluble silver compound is SILVER NITRATE because almost all nitrates are soluble.
  • A good choice for the soluble chloride compound is to use a sodium salt because almost all sodium salts are soluble. 
 The precipitate forms because the solid (AgCl) is insoluble in water.

The remaining sodium nitrate is soluble and so only the silver chloride will be precipitated. Once prepared, collect the salt by filtration and wash the solid. Dry it with a few sheets of filter paper.

Click on the diagram below to play!

Saturday, September 18, 2010

Application of Atmospheric Pressure in Genting Highland

During the school holiday, I brought my family to Genting Highland to escape the heat from Penang island. Geographically, Genting highland is a mountain peak of Titiwangsa Mountains. It is situated at an altitude of 1800 meters above sea level. Therefore its air pressure is lower than at sea level.

At the hotel room, my son suddenly asked me one scientific question, " Why the potatoes chips pack so big? ". I replied, " It was due to difference of atmospheric pressure".

At sea level, the atmospheric pressure is the highest. Therefore, you will see a smaller pack of chips.

At the peak of Genting Highland, the atmospheric pressure decreases in tandem with higher altitude. At 1800 metres altitude, air pressure inside the chips pack is greater than the outside atmospheric pressure. Difference of pressure produces a resultant force to push chips pack outward. Hence, the chips pack expanded.

After I explained air pressure lesson to him, he puzzled.  I don't think he could understand what I taught him about atmospheric pressure concept. How about you, my dear students ?

Friday, September 17, 2010

Petition To Maintain Teaching of Science and Maths in English‏

Dear All,

For those who wish to retain teaching of science and maths subjects in English, you can go to the following site and sign the Petiton To Maintain Teaching Science and Maths in English.

Please inform all your friends/family to do the same. Thank you for your support.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Rove Beetle Invasion...! Application of Neutralisation

Monday September 13, 2010, The Star

Turn off lights to keep rove beetles away

HOUSE owners are urged to switch off the lights whenever possible as it is now rove beetle season.

Seberang Prai Municipal Council (MPSP) special squad head M. Raju said the orange-black rove beetle’s habitat was being disturbed because of the padi harvesting period.“The rove beetles, which are attracted to lights, are only active at night. So switch off the lights, especially in the bedroom.”

The unwelcome ‘visitors’ had caused havoc in recent years. Victims have suffered severe inflammation on their faces or other body parts after coming into contact with the beetles.The secretion of the rove beetle is poisonous and acidic. Sightings of the beetles have been reported in several places on mainland Penang such as Prai and Bukit Mertajam. Those tiny creatures were the same ones which had caused some people to go blind in Africa.

He said those who happened to have skin contact with the beetle should wash the area with salt water immediately.The fluid, known as pederin, causes severe inflammation or dermatitis on the skin. One should seek medical assistance if the condition is serious with pus and swelling,” he said.
Acid  +  Alkali  --->  Salt  +   Water
Some examples of skin dermatitis caused by rove beetle:

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Right Brain Vs Left Brain - Optical Illusion

This theory of the structure and functions of the mind suggests that the two different sides of the brain control two different “modes” of thinking. It also suggests that each of us prefers one mode over the other.

Right brainers tend to be:Artistic. Whether it is in the form of acting, writing, painting, poetry, quantum physics, theoretical sciences, or social studies and psychology, you will prefer the more abstract subjects. You will tend to be emotional. Not in the sense of reactive, but that you feel things deeply when compared to a more left brainer. You tend to get angrier, more frustrated, less patient, more explosive, deeply saddened, extremely happy, and sometimes very bored. You tend to remember people's faces but you can't for the life of you remember their names.

Left brain learners tend to be:Auditory learners, better at learning through lectures, but also learn well through reading words in a book. Logical thinking, thinking of things in sequential order, but also they prefer to be taught in a linear way, step by step. Good at mathematics. Math is one of those skills that require a left brained learner. Prefer things to be organized so that things are able to be found when needed. Less emotionally driven. You either prefer to not deal with emotions at all, or don't feel things as strongly as others seem to do.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Spend Time Wisely in Holiday

Hooray! school holiday is on. Some schools have 2 weeks holiday in conjunction with Raya festival. What are you going to do during holiday? For those who are in Form 3 and Form 5, please spend your time in revising all the subjects to prepare for your PMR and SPM. Don't wait for the last minute preparation that usually yield a rotten result.

This second term school holiday is very crucial for you to do more exercises and past year exam questions. If you encounter any problems in your study, don't hesitate to publish your questions in this blog. I am willing to help you.

When the major examination is around the corner, usually parents and teachers are the most nervous person in monitoring their student's study. This is the reaction of love. So, they are really concern and care about you. Study hard and study smart for the sake of yourselves and your parents. They love you!

Thursday, August 26, 2010

Chemistry Form 4: Chapter 7 - Titration Method

The technique of titration is used to find out accurately how much of a chemical substance is dissolved in a given volume of a solution, that is, the concentration of the solution.

The technique uses a set of apparatus with which volumes of solutions can be measured to an accuracy of greater than 0.1 cm3. Three important pieces of apparatus are:
  • Burette - Measures accurately the volume of a solution added. Readings can be taken to an accuracy of half a division.
  • Pipette - Delivers an accurate volume of a solution. Often this is 25 cm3.
  • Volumetric flask - Used to make up an accurate volume of a solution, for example, 250 cm3. This could be a standard solution (of exactly known concentration and known solute).